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You are about to leave the 123Movies za.ca website for an external website. 123Movies za.ca has no control over the content or availability of linked sites. 123Movies za.ca does not guarantee, endorse, or guarantee any association between 123Movies za.ca and the linked site.Juxtacrine signaling: a review.
Cellular communication in three dimensions is essential for the development and function of complex multicellular systems. However, the advent of genetically encoded light-based sensors and fluorogenic substrates for intracellular signaling has allowed us to interrogate intercellular communication in three dimensions, providing a dynamic view of chemical communication in tissue. When expressed in the cellular membrane, reporter enzymes and fluorescently labeled ligands permit the visualization of extracellular chemical cues, informing the fate of many important developmental decisions, including neurogenesis and organogenesis. The recent development of juxtacrine sensors have proven to be particularly powerful, as these tools permit imaging of direct interactions between two or more cells. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in the field of juxtacrine signaling in light of the role of this cell-cell communication mode in early mammalian development, the dynamic regulation of signaling, and its contribution to tissue homeostasis and pathology.Deoxynivalenol exposure affects neural stem cell differentiation: role of cell death and the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a prevalent mycotoxin in wheat and oat grains. In order to investigate the role of DON exposure during neuronal differentiation in vivo, we performed a mouse model of chronic exposure to DON from the gestational week 6 (GW6) to GW19, and assessed the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in fetal cortical explants cultured at the GW19. We showed that in comparison to controls, the number of neurons derived from NSCs exposed to high doses of DON (10-500ng/kg body weight) was significantly reduced. In contrast, apoptotic cell death was not observed in cultured NSCs. Moreover, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyric acid, reduced DON-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that DON-induced cell death is ER stress dependent. Finally, our data showed that DON exposure is associated with increased ER stress markers and the presence of Bax, one of the Bcl 0b46394aab