Studio in a School offers art instruction and Marquis Studio runs puppetry classes. Young Audiences and Brooklyn Youth Chorus bring in theater, dance and music. Fifth graders work on engineering and design projects with a local architectural firm, according to the school's yearly plan. In one science project kids collected litter on the sidewalks, and along Jamaica Bay beach, tallying up what they found in order to educate the community, for example, they suggested shop owners place trash bins outside their stores to cut down on littering.
To understand the nature of digital music, it is helpful to have a general understanding of how analog and digital technology differ. Analog technology is characterized by an output system where the signal output is always proportional to the signal input. Because the outputs are analogous, the word "analog" is used. Basically, an analog mechanism is one where data is represented by continuously variable physical quantities like sound waves or electricity. In the context of music, analog technologies refer to traditional radio, cassettes, and vinyl, among others. These technologies may deliver imprecise signals and background noise. Thus, the duplication of analog music often erodes in quality over time.
The broadcast radio industry has defended its existing statutory exemption from paying sound recording copyright holders by arguing that radio broadcasts serve as free publicity and promotion of the music,169 and that performers and producers of sound recordings are compensated through sales of compact discs or MP3 music download files, concert tickets, and merchandise.170 Furthermore, radio broadcasters observe that the broadcaster exemption reflects a balanced, symbiotic economic relationship between the broadcasting, music, and sound recording industries, which Congress has chosen not to disturb for over 80 years despite repeated appeals by the recording industry to alter the existing performance royalty system.171 The broadcasters are also concerned that any new royalty fees will adversely impact financially strapped radio stations' ability to provide non-music services such as local news reporting, weather information, and public service announcements, or even force them to cease operations entirely.172
17 U.S.C. § 110(5)(A). Section 110(5)(A) applies only to non-digital music. While the text of the statute does not explicitly exempt only non-digital music, a commonly used apparatus would likely be a traditional home stereo, which receives an analog signal.
A 2013 Nielsen study found that, despite many available alternate sources online and via satellite, traditional over-the-air radio is still the way that most Americans listen to music. Nielsen, A Look Across Media: The Cross-Platform Report Q3 2013, Dec. 3, 2013, available at -look-across-media-the-cross-platform-report-q3-2013.html ("The average American radio listener tunes in to radio over two hours per day (or 14 hours per week), making it the second-most consumed form of media after TV.").
See Ben Sisario, Congressman Proposes New Rules for Music Royalties, New York Times, Sept. 30, 2013. Other legislation introduced in previous Congresses, including the Performance Rights Act (S. 379 and H.R. 848, 111th Congress), to eliminate the disparity in royalty obligation between traditional radio stations and entities that transmit music digitally, are discussed in CRS Report RL34411, Expanding the Scope of the Public Performance Right for Sound Recordings: A Legal Analysis of the Performance Rights Act (H.R. 848 and S. 379), by [author name scrubbed]. 2b1af7f3a8