In the period between Knowledge and Human Interests andThe Theory of Communicative Action, Habermas began to developa distinctive method for elaborating the relationship between atheoretical social science of modern societies, on the one hand, andthe normative and philosophical basis for critique, on the other.Following Horkheimer's definition of Critical Theory, Habermaspursued three aims in his attempt to combine social science andphilosophical analysis: it must be at once explanatory, practical, andnormative. This meant that philosophy could not,as it did for Kant, become the sole basis for normative reflection.Rather, Habermas argued, adequate critique requires a thoroughgoingcooperation between philosophy and social science. This sort ofanalysis is characteristic of Legitimation Crisis (1975;German ed., 1973e), in which Habermas analyzes the modern state assubject to endemic crises, which arise from the fact that the statecannot simultaneously meet the demands for rational problem solving,democracy, and cultural identity. Here the social science to whichHabermas appeals is more sociological and functional. Similarly, inthis work and in Communication and the Evolution of Society(1979), Habermas begins to develop a distinctive conception of rationalreconstruction, which models societal development as a learningprocess. In these works, Habermas begins to incorporate the results ofdevelopmental psychology, which aligns stages of development withchanges in the kinds of reasons that the maturing individual considersacceptable. Analogously, societies develop through similar changes inthe rational basis of legitimacy on the collective level. At this pointin his theorizing, Habermas's appropriation of the socialsciences has become methodologically and theoretically pluralistic: onhis view, a critical social theory is not distinctive in light ofendorsing some particular theory or method but as uniting normative andempirical inquiry.
Comprehensive critical theories make two problematic assumptions:that there is one preferred mode of critical explanation, and thatthere is one preferred goal of social criticism, namely a socialistsociety that fulfills the norm of human emancipation. Only with such agoal in the background does the two-step process of employinghistorical materialism to establish an epistemically and normativelyindependent stance make sense. The correctness or incorrectness of sucha critical model depends not on its acceptance or rejection by itsaddressees, but on the adequacy of the theory to objective historicalnecessities or mechanisms (into which the critical theorist alleges tohave superior insight). A pluralistic mode of critical inquiry suggestsa different norm of correctness: that criticism must be verified bythose participating in the practice and that this demand for practicalverification is part of the process of inquiry itself.
The effects of polymer morphology, thermal transitions, drying, and rheology on the injection molding process are explained in detail. The development of a robust molding process is broken down into two sections and is described as the Cosmetic Process and the Dimensional Process. Scientific molding procedures to establish a 3R process are provided.
The 6-step study: the viscosity (Rheology) curve, gate freeze study and pressure drop analysis were the three experiments conducted as part of scientific moulding studies. The Molding Area Diagram (MAD) has reference in some early texts including in Rosatos Hand Book of injection Molding, which was not always considered . Suhas kulkarni identified the MAD as the most effective and crucial step for deciding the robustness of the moulding process, cavity balancing is also important step .
Center for Environmental Systems (CES) The Center for Environmental Systems is dedicated to basic and application-motivated inter- and multi-disciplinary research aimed at creating basic scientific knowledge, advanced technology, and innovative management practices that lead to novel solutions for a sustainable utilization of our environmental resources. The Center conducts research sponsored by governmental agencies and private industry in a variety of environmental research areas, promotes environmental technology development, transfer and implementation, and fosters partnerships with industry, government and environmental service organizations for cooperative approaches to solving environmental problems. It also develops and maintains degree, certificate and continuing professional education programs for the Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering.
Second, as affiliates of both Prof. Barry Boehm's University of Southern California Center for Software Engineering and of the DOD-sponsored CEBASE (Center for Experimentally-based Software Engineering) led by Prof. Boehm and Prof. Victor Basili of the University of Maryland, the Software Engineering Lab's faculty are using the lab for experimentation in software engineering technologies and methodologies. Subjects of these studies include high-reliability software, methods for avoiding the need to perform full-scale defect detection and elimination, and modern agile software development practices pair programming, refactoring, etc. Specific studies of software reliability theory in concert with the Stevens Computer Engineering program are conducted with the goal of constraining the execution of software products from executing inherent faults so that they do not become failures. 1e1e36bf2d